MTT-S Winter Technical Meeting
Saturday, 13 January 2018, 1:00pm - 3:00pm
Room: Plaza Terrace D - F
The annual MTT-S Winter Technical Meeting held on Saturday prior to RWW Sunday Workshops at the same venue provides a forum for MTT-S Members and others to preview the Distinguished Microwave Lecturers (DML) Talks of newly elected DMLs for the Class of 2018-2020. Everyone is welcome to attend the talks at no charge.
Chair: J.-C. Chiao, University of Texas - Arlington
Low Phase Noise Signal Generation utilising Oscillators, Resonators & Filters and Atomic Clocks
Time: 1:00pm - 1:40pm
Speaker: Dr. Jeremy Everard, University of York
Oscillators are used in almost all consumer and professional electronic systems and the phase noise and jitter set the ultimate performance limit in navigation, communications and RADAR systems. It is therefore essential to develop simple accurate theories and design procedures to produce oscillators offering state of the art performance.
This talk will initially discuss the theory and design of a wide variety of oscillators offering the very best performance. Typically, this is achieved by splitting the oscillator design into its component parts and developing new amplifiers, resonators and phase shifters, which offer high Q, high power handling and low thermal and transposed flicker noise. Key features of oscillators offering the lowest phase noise available will be shown, for example: a 1.25GHz DRO produces -173dBc/Hz at 10kHz offset and a noise floor of -186dB and a 10 MHz crystal oscillator shows -123dBc/Hz at 1Hz and -149 at 10Hz. New compact atomic clocks with ultra-low phase noise microwave synthesiser chains (with micro Hz resolution) will also be briefly described to demonstrate how the long-term stability can be improved. New printed resonators (and thereby filters) demonstrate Qs exceeding 540 at 5GHz on PCBs and 80 at 21GHz on GaAs MMICs. These resonators produce near zero radiation loss and therefore require no screening. L band 3D printed resonators demonstrate high Q (> 200) by selecting the standing wave pattern to ensure zero current through the via hole and new ultra-compact versions (4mm x 4mm) have been developed for use inside or underneath the package. Alumina based resonators demonstrating Qs 200,000 at X band have also been produced. Tunable versions (1%) have recently been developed.
As an academic, the aim is to produce the state of the art through insight and understanding, as well as to explain this to others. The author ran the first course on oscillators including a lab class at IMS 09. This was repeated in 2010, 2011. A battery powered lab kit offering 5 experiments with full theoretical and simulation support was provided. The kit also produced the state of the art performance with flicker noise corners around 200Hz. The methodology behind this course will be described. Theory and 5 experiments on the same day was part of the reason for success. The next generation of oscillators will offer orders of magnitude improvement in performance. Our current attempts to do this will be described.
Jeremy Everard (M'90) obtained his BSc Eng. from the University of London, King's College in 1976 and his PhD from the University of Cambridge in 1983. He worked in industry for six years at the GEC Marconi Research Laboratories, M/A-Com and Philips Research Laboratories on Radio and Microwave circuit design. At Philips he ran the Radio Transmitter Project Group.
He then taught RF and Microwave Circuit design, Opto-electronics and Electromagnetism at King's College London for nine years while leading the Physical Electronics Research Group. He became University of London Reader in Electronics at King's College London in 1990 and full Professor of Electronics at the University of York in September 1993. At York, he has also taught analogue IC design, filter design, Electromagnetism and RF & microwave circuit design.
In September 2007, he was awarded a five-year research chair in Low Phase Noise Signal Generation sponsored by BAE Systems and the Royal Academy of Engineering. In the RF/Microwave area his research interests include: The theory and design of low noise oscillators using inductor capacitor (LC), Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW), crystal, dielectric, transmission line, helical and superconducting resonators; flicker noise measurement and reduction in amplifiers and oscillators; high efficiency broadband amplifiers; high Q printed filters with low radiation loss; broadband negative group delay circuits and MMIC implementations.
His research interests in Opto-electronics include: All optical self-routing switches which route data-modulated laser beams according to the destination address encoded within the data signal, ultra-fast 3-wave opto-electronic detectors and mixers for TeraHertz applications and distributed fibre optic temperature sensors. Most recently, atomic clocks using coherent population trapping and ultra low phase noise microwave flywheel oscillator synthesiser chains with micro Hz resolution have been developed.
He has published papers on: oscillators, amplifiers, resonators and filters, all optical switching, optical components, optical fibre sensors and mm-wave optoelectronic devices and a book on 'Fundamentals of RF Circuit Design with Low Noise Oscillators (Wiley) - New edition in progress. He has filed Patent applications in many of these areas. He is a member of the IET, London and the IEEE (USA).
Nonresonating Modes Do It Better!
Time: 1:40pm - 2:20pm
Speaker: Dr. Simone Bastioli, RS Microwave Company Inc.
The innovative concept of nonresonating modes and how this has been recently exploited to extend the performance and capabilities of the state-of-art of microwave filter technology will be presented in this talk. Although the concept is presented by mostly focusing on filters, as these are the components where this new technique has found large application over the past few years, all general features are explained and illustrated in detail thus potentially paving the way for new applications involving other passive microwave components. After a brief discussion highlighting the importance of microwave filters from a system perspective, the main concept of the talk will be introduced by defining what is a nonresonating mode and by illustrating what are the benefits of this approach. The concept is then gradually explained by using some waveguide as well as planar SIW examples, as the rectangular waveguide technology is where these modes were first observed; most importantly, these examples have been proved to considerably ease the understanding of the concepts from both students and non-experts perspectives. The general multimode environment of these structures is described step-by-step and several animations are introduced during the explanation thus really allowing the audience to absorb the more general multimode concept that otherwise often remain an obscure myth for many microwave engineers. The presentation is then extended to the most various filter technologies, such as conventional coaxial structures, dielectric resonators based architectures, as well as more original mixed technologies. Several manufacturing examples of actual products developed at RS Microwave (Dr Bastioli's affiliation) are going to be presented along this talk, thus also satisfying the more practical taste of an industry audience.
Simone Bastioli (S'10–M'11) received the Ph.D. degree in electronic engineering from the University of Perugia, Italy, in 2010.
He is the Acting Chief Engineer at RS Microwave Company Inc., Butler, NJ, United States, where he is responsible for the design and development of innovative microwave filters, multiplexers, switched filters banks, as well as more complex sub-assemblies for military applications.
Dr. Bastioli is a current IEEE Young Professional (YP), and he was the recipient of the 2012 IEEE Microwave Prize for the invention of TM dual-mode cavities and nonresonating modes. He is the vice chair of the MTT-8 Filters and Passive Components Technical Committee, and he serves as an Associate Editor of the IEEE Microwave Magazine. In 2008, he was awarded with the Best Student Paper Award (First Place) at the IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) held in Atlanta, GA, USA, and with the Young Engineers Prize at the European Microwave Conference held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. In 2009, he was the recipient of the Hal Sobol Travel Grant presented at the IEEE MTT-S IMS held in Boston, MA, USA. He was also awarded the Young Scientist Distinction by the Polish Academy of Science at the 2014 MIKON International Conference held in Gdansk, Poland. His work resulted in several publications in international journals and conferences, as well as several patent applications.
Automotive Radar - A Signal Processing Perspective on Current Technology and Future Systems
Time: 2:20pm - 3:00pm
Speaker: Dr. Markus Gardill, InnoSenT GmbH
Radar systems are a key technology of modern vehicle safety & comfort systems. Without doubt it will only be the symbiosis of Radar, Lidar and camera-based sensor systems which can enable advanced autonomous driving functions soon. Several next generation car models are such announced to have more than 10 radar sensors per vehicle, allowing for the generation of a radar-based 360° surround view necessary for advanced driver assistance as well as semi-autonomous operation. Hence the demand from the automotive industry for high-precision, multi-functional radar systems is higher than ever before, and the increased requirements on functionality and sensor capabilities lead to research and development activities in the field of automotive radar systems in both industry and academic worlds.
Current automotive radar technology is almost exclusively based on the principle of frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar, which has been well known for several decades. However, together with an increase of hardware capabilities such as higher carrier frequencies, modulation bandwidths and ramp slopes, as well as a scaling up of simultaneously utilized transmit and receive channels with independent modulation features, new degrees of freedom have been added to traditional FMCW radar system design and signal processing. The anticipated presentation will accordingly introduce the topic with a review on the fundamentals of radar and FMCW radar. After introducing the system architecture of traditional and modern automotive FMCW radar sensors, with e.g. insights into the concepts of distributed or centralized processing and sensor data fusion, the presentation will dive into the details of fast-chirp FMCW processing – the modulation mode which is used by the vast majority of current automotive FMCW radar systems. Starting with the fundamentals of target range and velocity estimation based on the radar data matrix, the spatial dimension available using modern single-input multiple-output (SIMO) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar systems will be introduced and radar processing based on the radar data cube or higher-dimension radar-data tensors is discussed. Of interest is the topic of angular resolution – one of the key drawbacks which e.g. render Lidar systems superior to radar in some situations. Consequently, traditional and modern methods for direction of arrival estimation in FMCW radar systems are presented, starting from traditional monopulse-like algorithms to modern sparse reconstruction techniques. Besides other topics such as blindness, rain & snow and near-field detection the presentation will then introduce the great challenge of FMCW radar system interference. While FMCW radar interference is a challenge which can be handled using adaptive signal processing in today’s systems, it will become a severe problem with the increasing number of radar-sensors equipped vehicles in dense traffic situations in the near future and a solution to the expected increase in interference is still an open question.
It is this problem of interference, together with some added functionality, which motivated the proposal of alternative radar waveforms such as pseudo-random or orthogonal-frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) radar for automotive radar systems. Although not yet of great interest from an industrial perspective, the fundamentals and capabilities of both technologies will be introduced in the remainder of the anticipated presentation.
Markus Gardill (S'11-M'15) was born in Bamberg, Germany in 1985. He received the Dipl.-Ing. and Dr.-Ing. degree in systems of information and multimedia technology/electrical engineering from the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany, in 2010 and 2015, respectively.
In 2010, he joined the Institute for Electronics Engineering at the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg as a research assistant and teaching fellow. From 2014 to 2015 he was head of the team Radio Communication Technology. In late 2015 he joined the Robert Bosch GmbH as an R&D engineer for optical and imaging metrology systems and leading the cluster of non-destructive testing for the international production network. In 2016 he joined InnoSenT GmbH as Senior Software Developer for automotive radar signal processing algorithms.
During his affiliation with the Institute for Electronics Engineering he taught Circuits & Systems for Communication, Digital Electronic Systems, Programmable Electronic Systems, and Wireless Automotive Electronics. He currently is lecturer for Wireless Automotive Electronics at the Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg.
His main research interest includes radar and communication systems, antenna (array) design, and signal processing algorithms. His particular interest is spatio-temporal processing such as e.g. beamforming and direction-of-arrival estimation with a focus on combining the worlds of signal processing and microwave/electromagnetics.
Dr. Gardill is a member of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (IEEE MTT-S) and serves as a member of the IEEE MTT-S Technical Coordinating Committee Digital Signal Processing (MTT-9). He regularly acts as reviewer and TPRC member for several journals and conferences. He is selected as Distinguished Microwave Lecturer (DML) for the DML term 2018-2020 with a presentation focussing automotive radar systems.